Calcium Needs At All Life Stages

It is the most abundant mineral in the body, present mainly in the bones and teeth. From the start, toddlers have an increased need for dietary calcium to support bone growth and skeletal development that takes place rapidly in the early years of life. This development and its need – continues into the teenage years and is particularly crucial for adolescent girls who need to stock their calcium supplies to prevent osteoporosis later in life. Adequate intake at this stage is needed to support ongoing bone growth and to achieve peak bone mass. It is an essential dietary element required in optimal amounts for good bone health, efficient nerve and muscle function, and overall cardiovascular health. Without enough of it throughout life, a person’s bones can begin to weaken over time. That can make it more difficult to stay active while also creating a higher risk of fractures and osteoporosis. A person’s bone density will generally reach its peak at roughly age 30, and then begin to fade after that. Adequate daily intake can help maintain proper bone density and help prevent osteoporosis – which creates porous and fragile bones. It makes up about three percent of the earth’s crust and is a basic component of most animals and plants. Eating a diet rich in calcium helps to restore it to the bones; supplements can help as well.

Why is calcium necessary?

It is known mostly for its role in building and maintaining strong bones and teeth, but it is also required for proper functioning of the heart, muscles and nervous system. It plays a role in maintaining normal blood pressure, regulating blood clotting. It is also associated with relieving mood swings, food cravings, and decreasing the pain, tenderness and bloating associated with premenstrual syndrome.

What are the deficiency signs?

Deficiency symptoms (also known as hypocalcemia) range from minor – numbness or tingling of the fingers, muscle cramps, lethargy and poor appetite – to more severe, including mental confusion, skeletal malformations, dermatitis, and in infants, delayed development. Illnesses such as osteoporosis (brittle, thin, porous bones that easily break) and rickets are also associated with a deficiency.

How much, and what kind, does an adult need?

If vitamin D levels are optimal, most adults should be able to meet their daily calcium needs via a varied diet. When individuals are unable to get enough of it through a diet or for those who may need more than the recommended daily allowance, supplements can help. Doctors recommends women supplement with 500 to 700 mg of calcium citrate in two divided doses taken with meals for a total of 1,000-1,200 mg a day from all sources. Supplementing with its citrate form, which is more easily absorbed than other forms, taken with half the dosage amount of magnesium.

How much does a child need?

The normal daily recommended intake for children is as follows: infants through three years of age is 400-800 mg; children between 4 and 10 years of age is 800 mg; adolescent males is 800-1,200 mg; and adolescent females is 800-1,200 mg daily.
How do you get enough from foods?

An abundant source of this mineral in the American diet is dairy products – two glasses of milk per day provide 1,000-1,200 mg. If you choose to get via dairy products – and this is not essential, as there are many other calcium-rich foods – make sure you use only hormone-free, organic dairy products to reduce your exposure to the antibiotics and hormones found in many dairy products. Non-dairy foods include: greens such as collards, mustard, kale, and bok choy; canned salmon (with bones) and sardines; tofu, soy milk, fruit juice and cereals; blackstrap molasses; and broccoli.

Are there any risks associated with too much?

Its supplements can be constipating, and should be balanced with magnesium as discussed above. Excessive amounts in the blood may have negative effects, including nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and increased urination. More serious complications include kidney toxicity, confusion, and irregular heart rhythm. Studies indicate that men who take too much may have an increased risk of prostate cancer, and should limit their dietary intake to 500-600 mg daily from all sources.

Who should we take it as supplements?

It is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth and bones. Getting enough of it over your lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis. Most people get it through their normal diet. Dairy foods and leafy green vegetables have high levels of calcium. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to take extra dose id required.

TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS

Forms of calcium include:
Calcium Type
Pros
Calcium citrate (21% calcium)
Most easily absorbed
Calcium carbonate
Least expensive; has more elemental calcium

Calcium carbonate. Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products contain it and these sources of it do not cost much. Each pill or chew provides 200 mg or more of calcium.

Calcium citrate. This is a more expensive form of calcium. It is absorbed well on an empty or full stomach. People with low levels of stomach acid (a condition that is more common in people over age 50) absorb this better than other forms.

HOW TO TAKE HIGHER DOSE

Increase the dose of your supplement slowly. Your provider may suggest that you start with 500 mg a day for a week, and then add more over time.Try to spread the extra dose you take over the day. DO NOT take more than 500 mg at a time. Taking it throughout the day will:

Allow more calcium to be absorbed

Cut down on side effects such as gas, bloating, and constipation
The total amount adults need every day from food and supplements:
19 to 50 years: 1,000 mg/day
51 to 70 years: Men – 1,000 mg/day; Women – 1,200 mg/day
71 years and over: 1,200 mg/day

SIDE EFFECTS AND SAFETY

DO NOT take more than the recommended amount of it. Try the following if you have side effects from taking extra calcium:

Drink more fluids.

Eat high-fiber foods

Switch to another form of calcium if the diet changes do not help.

Always tell your provider and pharmacist if you are taking extra dose. Its supplements may change the way your body absorbs some medicines. These include certain types of antibiotics and iron pills.

Are there any other special considerations?

Vitamin D is key to absorbing and so make sure to get adequate intake of vitamin D. Vitamin D, often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin,” is actually a fat-soluble hormone that the body can synthesize naturally. There are several forms, including two that are important to humans: D2 and D3. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is synthesized by plants, and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is synthesized by humans when skin is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. The active form of the vitamin is calcitriol, synthesized from either D2 or D3 in the kidneys. Vitamin D helps to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Vitamin K2 is a beneficial form of Vitamin K for bones. Unlike Vitamin K1 which is used to activate blood clotting proteins, Vitamin K2 is beneficial for activating proteins which help bind calcium to bones. Vitamin K2 is found in food but not in anywhere near the concentration found in Osteo-K. Taking Osteo-K helps boost daily intake of vitamin K2 to support bone health. Older people may need to take it in extra larger doses because they do not absorb it as well as younger people.

If you take oral vitamin D,you also need to take vitamin K2. Vitamin K2 helps to move calcium to proper areas where its needed and removes it from sites where it shouldn’t be present like arteries and soft tissues. When you take vitamin D, your body creates more of these vitamin K2-dependent proteins, the proteins that will move it around. They have a lot of potential health benefits. But until the K2 comes in to activate those proteins, those benefits aren’t realized. So, really, if you’re taking vitamin D, you’re creating an increased demand for K2. Vitamin K2 deficiency is one of the reason why people suffer from vitamin D toxicity symptoms which includes improper calcification leading to hardening of arteries. And vitamin D and K2 work together to strengthen your bones and improve your heart health.

It seems likely that 150 to 200 mgs of vitamin k2 is enough to activate your K2 dependent proteins to shuttle calcium to proper areas.

How can you tell that you are deficit of vitamin k2?

There is no specific tests for finding it. By assessing the lifestyle and diet you eat,one can find whether he is lacking the critical nutrients needed for the body. If you face following health conditions then you are likely deficient in vitamin K2.

Do you have osteoporosis?

Do you have heart disease?

Do you have diabetes?

If you are facing such symptoms, its better to think on deficiencies and take necessary steps.

Cosmetic Medicines Ordering, Storage, Supply and Incident Reporting

This article gives an overview of the systems and processes that must be followed by cosmetic clinics when supplying prescription medicines.

A prescription medicine or drug legally requires a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist to write a prescription for a named patient. The list of drugs and prescribing qualifications may vary in different countries.

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medicines are ordered, stored and supplied within the legislative and other relevant pharmaceutical guidelines available.

Therefore ordering, storage and supply of medicines for use within the practice must be undertaken according to appropriate procedures and guidelines to ensure all relevant legislation and pharmaceutical information is adhered to.

Any medicines stored within a typical cosmetic clinic are those used for aesthetic purposes, this includes drugs such as Botox ® and Hyaluronidase. These must be stored according to manufacturer’s guidelines in a locked refrigerator or locked cabinet as appropriate. The temperature of the refrigerator should be monitored and documented daily. If the temperature is found to be outside the recommended range the pharmacy supplier must be informed as soon as possible and if necessary the medicines are returned to the supplier and a new supply obtained.

Supply of Medicines and Maintaining Patient Records for Cosmetic Clinics

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for maintaining a record of medicines obtained from the supplier for use during treatment. A copy of the prescription is retained in the patient’s notes and the following information is noted in the Medicines IN register. The Medical practitioner must include the following details:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided by the pharmacy

– the amount provided by the pharmacy

– the format of the medicine (oral I IM etc)

– the batch numbers and expiry dates

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for ensuring that details of the medicines administered are recorded in the patient notes, including:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided

– the route of administration

– the batch number and expiry date of the medicine

– the date and time of administration

The Medical Practitioner must also document in the Medicines OUT register the name of the patient the medicine was administered to and the date and time of administration. This will ensure an audit trail is available for each practitioner.

All medicines not used or expired must be returned to the pharmacy.

In conclusion only a medical professional should be accepted on a cosmetic training course. This will ensure all practitioners have experience with the use of prescription only medicines and record keeping. The medical practitioner who facilitates a cosmetic intervention should be a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist. These specialists have the prerequisite medical experience plus understand their legal and ethical requirements in prescribing, dispensing and administration of such drugs.

Any errors with the medication must be recorded and reported.

Reporting a Medication Incident

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medication incidents follow local legislative and other guidelines for your country of practice. The following is based on the UK CQC guidelines.

All practitioners involved with medication prescribing, dispensing or administration must be aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of a medication error or near miss.

Medication errors or near misses will occur despite having risk procedures in place, and all personnel involved in medication prescribing, dispensing or administration are at risk of being involved an error or a near miss. Because of this, comprehensive reporting of all medication incidents is crucial to enable the organization to learn from mistakes and improve practice wherever possible.

All incidents involving medication prescribing, dispensing or administration, ‘near misses’ and serious drug reactions must be documented on the Incident Report Form. A medication error is a preventable incident or omission that results in an increase in the risk of patient harm. A ‘near miss’ is a medication error that is discovered before it reaches the patient, thus preventing harm to the patient.

What to Report

The following are some of the issues that require an incident report:

– incorrect dose administered (both over and under dosing)

– incorrect route of administration

– incorrect rate of administration

– incorrect drug administered

– administration to the wrong patient

– failure to document administration in the patient’s medical notes

– administration of an expired drug

– prescribing errors

– incorrect labels

– allergies not recorded

– serious adverse effects including allergic reactions

Near Misses will also be recorded on the Incident Report form.

How to Report Medication errors

Medication errors involving administration to a patient will be documented in the patient’s notes. The Medical Practitioner should inform the patient.

The incident should be documented fully before the end of the day. This report form must be completed by the Medical Practitioner and given to the Practice Manager without delay.

Follow Up Procedures for Medication Errors

A follow-up is undertaken by the Medical Practitioner to ensure the safety of the patient. If necessary the patient must be referred to the nearest Emergency department for further review. The Practice Manager must undertake an investigation into the event ensuring a statement is taken from those involved.

The incident must be discussed at the next Clinical Governance meeting and an action plan developed to aim to prevent recurrence; this may include further training for the personnel involved.

Any severe medication incident must be reported to the within 24 hours of it occurring.

I hope you enjoyed the article. For more information about medicines and their regulations you can check with the Department of Health and MRHA in the UK. In the USA please refer to The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Some Important Aspects Regarding Healthcare Products

You can find all sorts of vitamin and mineral capsules these days. These natural healthcare products can help heal certain ailments.

There are two types of vegetable, fruits and animals, which are sold in the market these days, organic and non-organic. It is normal for non-organic farmers to use pesticide for their vegetables and fruits. To have larger sized farm animals, non-organic farmers use hormone on their animals. Antibiotics are injected to ensure that animals are not inflicted with any type of disease.

In other words, residues of chemicals and antibiotics could pass on to those who eat non-organic vegetables and animals. By spraying pesticides on vegetables and fruits, there could be essential loss of important vitamins like Vitamin B and C. If you eat only organic food, you may not face the problem of lack of vitamins and existence of toxins in your body.

Taking a daily dosage of Vitamin C, B complex and other vitamins might be necessary for normal healthy people. As you may know, Vitamin C is vital in preventing various diseases including viral infection. In today’s world of environmental pollution, there is bound to be many toxins in one’s body due to inhalation of polluted air.

Another cause of toxins in the body could be non-organic meat. Getting rid of such toxins is vital for having a healthy body. Wu Long tea and green tea are known for purifying the body from free radicals. Moreover, regular drinking of Wu Long tea could give other health benefits as well. Your body’s immune system is stronger. Even the cholesterol level in your body is very much reduced by drinking this tea regularly.

If you are tensed up due to work or other matters, simply take a cup of chamomile tea. It would calm you down. Even those who face problem sleeping at night should try drinking chamomile at night. Just drink a cup around half an hour before sleeping. Research and findings in bio-pharmaceutical technology has brought about the production of various natural healthcare products for maintaining health or curing sicknesses.

As a precaution, it is better to check with your physician especially if you are suffering from any ailment. It is important the labels of the products and follow the instructions properly to avoid any possible overdose. In short, natural healthcare products can be taken as a means of healthy living.

Bed Bugs and Public Health

Bed bugs have been around for centuries, and big cities have always had a certain low level of them. In fact, we’ve had a bit of a reprieve from them over the last 40 years because people used harsh poisons to keep them at bay, but due to a ban in poisons or toxic pesticides-bed bugs are now making a comeback are being blamed for the increase in infestations.

Well, the first thing that you need to know about is that bed bug bites are itchier than mosquito bites. This is because of the anesthetics in bed bug’s saliva. Bed bug rash will appear an hour after you were pierced. But to some people, the bed bug rash appear only after some days or week from being bitten. This depends upon the body’s reaction to chemicals being secreted by bed bugs.

The most commonly affected areas of the body are arms and shoulders. Reactions to the bites may appear delayed: up to 9 days before lesions appear. Common allergic reactions include development of large wheels, often>1-2 cm, which are accompanied by itching and inflammation. It has also been suggested that the allergens from the bed bugs may also be associated with asthmatic infections.

Even though the public health concerns are authentic, they are not good enough to importune widespread panic. Bed bug invasion can be eradicated or eliminated with pesticide sprays and dusting but the owner should get professional help, in case the condition gets traumatic or irritating.

So, above are some of the common symptoms and methods to detect and treat a bed bug infection. Keep your home and surroundings clean and neat, and enjoy a healthy life!

Practical Prevention of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease caused by gradual wear and tear of joints. Though the exact cause of osteoarthritis is not determined but many factors may contribute to the development of this disease. They include age, sex, hereditary, nerve injury, muscle weakness, obesity or occupation. But there is something which you can do to diminish your risk of getting osteoarthritis.

Practical Prevention of Osteoarthritis:

Keep your weight down: Research suggests that obese people are at risk of osteoarthritis and that weight loss prevents or delays osteoarthritis from occurring. Obese people posses a significant risk of developing osteoarthritis by putting unnecessary strain on the joints. Study shows that people who loose 11 pounds cut their risk of osteoarthritis to half.

Get enough calcium and vitamins C and D: One of the best ways to avoid bone osteoarthritis is the proper intake of vitamins especially calcium and vitamin D. Calcium is the major component of bone, and is therefore crucial to maintain bone density whereas vitamin D helps in absorption of calcium.

Intake of sufficient amount of calcium in diet: Adult should have a daily intake of 1,000-1,500 mg per day through diet and this will reduce the chances of getting osteoarthritis.

Take precautions at work: Researchers have linked osteoarthritis with repetitive tasks and with jobs that involve kneeling or squatting, especially when lifting heavy objects.

Strengthen muscle and joints through exercise: Exercise can help reduce joint pain and stiffness. Light to moderate-intensity physical activity may prevent or delay the process of bone degeneration.

Avoids sports injury: Avoid sport injury by taking proper precaution while playing or doing exercise. Precautions that you should take while exercising include using proper equipment and protective gear; cross training or varying your activities; taking a break if something hurts or you feel tired; and getting prompt care for injuries.

Medical Tourism Tips For Pleasant Health Care Abroad

Medical tourism is a booming industry and every year more and more medical tourists are visiting various destinations for receiving top quality treatment at affordable prices. As a medical tourist you need to do some research while selecting the country, hospital and doctor for your treatment. Also you need to make sure everything is planned well before you go abroad so at you have a pleasant medical trip and don’t have to face any complications in an unknown destination.

Below are some tips that can be helpful for your medical trip:

  1. Research – All experts would recommend you to research a lot before you travel abroad. Researching will help you in understanding the procedure, risks involved, time for stay, recovery time etc and at the same time also help you from getting victim of any scams etc.
  2. Always seek information about hospital accreditation, success rates, patient’s testimonials etc.
  3. Check for doctor’s information like education, experience and boar certifications.
  4. Consult if the treatment or procedure is safe.
  5. Get information about the climate and weather conditions at the medical tourism destination.
  6. Keep necessary contact information with you like relatives, friends, embassy, doctor etc.
  7. Take necessary vaccines if needed before leaving the country.
  8. Check is traveling abroad will be cost effective and also if it is safe to travel to the country.
  9. Better seek the services of a medical tourism company, they specialize in medical travel thing and can arrange quotes for you very quickly. Also as they work with various hospitals you can have multiple options to choose from and select the one that best suits you.

How to Get Rid of Your Health Problems?

Maintaining a good health needs a highly relaxed mind. Stress can put your normal life into a complex and dangerous situation which can transform into fatigue and compounds in developing problems that can ruin your life to a great extent. This can put your life into great trouble.

One of the reasons, where an individual can undergo stress is the escalating healthcare costs that are no more accessible to an average individual. This increase in costs makes proper healthcare inaccessible to most of the people which would develop into a major concern in the near future. This rise in costs is because of many cost drivers such as prescription, expenses of modern technologies, treatments and skyrocketing hospital charges.

In order to effectively control costs, quality healthcare must be provided to all the people by the government at an affordable price but due to many sociopolitical reasons this hasn’t been implemented. Many organizations and individuals also have put in a lot of effort to reduce the costs but to their utter dismay this wasn’t possible for them. Some organizations were able to survive against all the odds in providing affordable healthcare to the public. These organizations, with an objective and vision to provide affordable healthcare access to the citizens of America, have started offering huge discounts on the medical care expenses. This includes providing dental, vision, prescription drugs, and chiropractic care for the well-being of the people. By giving provide huge discounts on the medical bills, companies have restructured the whole healthcare industry to a great extent. Such a situation created has provided ultimate solution in critical situations.

The Health Care Crisis in a Faltering Economy

Many American’s are writing their health care out of their budget due to the uncertain economy. The Kaiser Family Foundation conducted a poll, which showed that 53 percent of participants said that they or someone in their family has cut back on health care because of the high costs associated with it. Especially for American’s who are out of work, not having coverage can send health care costs skyrocketing with bills piling up rather quickly. The poll also indicates that more people are turning to home remedies and over the counter drugs, as opposed to seeking the help of a physician. Lastly, more American’s are not filling prescriptions and/or avoiding medical tests or treatments in order to just get by.

A few things that will help you save money is to request your own records and do it well in advance of your doctors appointment, Take note of any changes you have had in the last six months and write everything down before your visit, so you don’t forget to ask any important questions. Essentially, get the most out of one appointment as possible. Ask your doctor for free samples of any prescriptions to help keep costs down and ask about cheaper generic alternatives to your current medications.

American’s do have an option to ask for financial help as many hospitals and clinics usually have financial assistance programs. Some doctors, like Feltheimer of New York Presbyterian, lowers his fees to $50.00 for patients’ who are out of work or uninsured. Many doctors will work out a payment schedules, so do not hesitate to ask what your physician’s policies are. People with chronic or debilitating disease such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis, can access the Patient Advocate Foundation. They provide help negotiating with insurers and helps people get the most out of their health plan. There are no financial requirements to qualify, so call (800) 532-5274 to be assigned a case manager.

Health Starters

When the thought of a working out comes up in the attempt to create a perfect body, beginners jump right into it but do not hold the correct information to achieve those results.

A lot people go about building muscle absolutely the wrong way. Because of this, they end up giving up even after one week. Some end up hurting themselves because they do not hold the correct knowledge at hand. In return, you see people training with absolutely no results and that is why they fail at building muscles correctly and end up with no results.

If you are going to get in to muscle building, you have to know what it entails. I think the number one thing that people over look is dieting. What I am referring to is what you eat and when you eat. Most people don’t understand that building muscle and achieving that perfect body is just one big science project. What I mean is successful people monitor what they eat and how much they eat. Also, 75% of getting results relies on proper dieting.

There are also many other factors including intake of protein, rest, etc. So if one thinks he or she can just go the gym and work out for 2 hours a day and expect results without proper dieting, forget it!

Also, there has to be some motivation in store. Sure going to the gym can be dreadful and be long hours, but what if you had goals? Setting goals for yourself in whatever it is that you want to accomplish is very important! without goals, you will have no point that you are trying to reach and thus working out will get very boring really quick.

If you are considering going to a gym rather than working out at home, make sure you choose one that fits you. There are plenty of gyms out there and many gyms offer activities that some don’t. For instance there could be a gym that has a kick boxing class and another one that simply has a swimming pool.

Whatever aerobic activities excites you, make sure you pick a gym that has those accessible.

Muscle building can be very exciting once you have the knowledge of how to achieve the body you want. You might train for looks or for performance.

Whatever it may be just remember, information is the biggest commodity in the world!

Personal Health Organizer – Keep Track of Your Numbers For Better Health Outcomes

Having knowledge of your key numbers is an important way to keep track of your health. In addition, it has been observed that more effective information gathering by patients, and more conversation with their physician during office visits was related to better health status.

What are your health numbers? When were they last checked? What do they mean? Are they close to normal? The answers to these questions are very important to your overall well-being. Remember, knowledge is power. This is a perfect opportunity for you to take control of your health care.

Know Your Numbers

An actively involved health care consumer should always know their important numbers. These numbers can alert you of any trends or potential risks in your health status. Here is a list of several key numbers you should have access to and track.

1. Blood Pressure
2. Pulse
3. Total Cholesterol
4. LDL (“Bad”) Cholesterol
5. HDL (“Good”) Cholesterol
6. Triglycerides
7. Fasting Glucose
8. Waist Circumference
9. Body Mass Index

Your primary care physician may have other numbers for you to track. For most health conditions there key numbers you need to know. Ask your physician about the latest research related to your condition. Once you know your numbers, you can set and reach specific targets with your physician.

Taking an active role in your own medical care may be one of the most important decisions of your life. Your level of participation can be dramatically increased through the use of a personal health organizer. Use it to keep track of your key numbers for better health outcomes.